Volume 25, Issue 3 (Summer 2019)                   Intern Med Today 2019, 25(3): 172-183 | Back to browse issues page

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Javaheri Houshi F, Abbassi-Daloii A, Abdi A, Ziaolhagh S J. Toxicity Effects of Intraperitoneal Injection of Biochemical Nanosilver on Cardiac Tissue Structure Following Aerobic Training in Male Wistar Rats. Intern Med Today 2019; 25 (3) :172-183
URL: http://imtj.gmu.ac.ir/article-1-3147-en.html
1- Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.
2- Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran. , abbasi.daloii@gmail.com
3- Department of Exercise Physiology, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran.
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1. Introduction
anoparticles have unique biochemical properties. These properties are not even found in the materials from which they are derived. The small size and high surface area of the nanoparticles increase their chemical activities and allow them to act as a high-performance catalyst [1, 2]. Such increased biochemical activities of many nanoparticles have led to their widespread applications; i.e., drug delivery, vaccination, and the diagnosis or treatment of numerous diseases [3, 4]. As the applications of silver nanoparticles increase, the odds of human exposure to these substances enhance [8, 9]. Oxidative stress induced by oxygen free radicals is among the main pathological factors in many diseases [18, 19].
There have been few studies on the toxicity effects of nanosilver following an exercise program on body tissues. Vasili et al. explored the impact of aerobic exercise on hepatotoxicity induced by iron oxide nanoparticles in Wistar rats. They reported lower hepatic tissue damage and elevated liver enzymes in the low-intensity aerobic exercise group [21]. Silver nanoparticles account for 56% of the world’s nanoparticles; however, few studies have been conducted on the effects of exercising on preventing the toxicity of nanoparticles on body tissues. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity effect of chemical and biological nanosilver following an aerobic exercise course on the structure of cardiac tissue.
2. methods
This experimental study was conducted on male Wistar rats at Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch in 2018. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into six groups of control, Aerobic Exercise (AE), Aerobic Exercise-and NanoBiological Injection (AE + NB), Aerobic Exercise -NanoChemical Injection (AE+NCH), NanoBiological Injection (NB), and NanoChemical Injection (NCH). (Table 1 & 2 & Figure 1). Chemical and biological silver nanoparticles were injected intraperitoneally at a toxic dose after a period of aerobic training [25].

3. Results
The obtained results suggested that tissue changes, including irregularity and coagulation types, significantly increased in the NCH group, compared to the controls. Moreover, in the NB group, some scattered blood droplets were observed in some areas. Following aerobic exercise and the injection of toxic nanosilver in the NB group, no irregularity, isolation, and hyperemia were observed. In AE + NCH group, scattered blood cell aggregation was observed in some areas.
4. Discussion
The study results were consistent with those of Naghsh et al. [27]. They reported a slow change in the core and fibers of cardiac muscle after injecting a toxic dose of nanosilver; possibly indicating the onset of apoptosis. In our study, structural changes in cardiac tissue, cardiac muscle cells, and hyperemia were observed in the NCH group. 
Song et al. argued that the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles are probably due to their effects on cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell cycle. The viability of cells and their metabolism are reduced by exposure to the toxic silver nanoparticles, leading to membrane damage and the reduced activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxides [27]. 
Another study indicated increased apoptosis and tissue necrosis following the use of silver nanoparticles in tissues like lung and heart [28]. This impact of chemical nanosilver may be due to the use of regenerative agents for their products which have potential risks to human health and the environment [29]. 
The obtained data are also consistent with the findings of Wisløff et al. [30]. Their study on rats revealed a 15% reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy after myocardial infarction; 15% and 12% reductions in the length and width of myocytes after aerobic exercise, respectively; and a 60% improvement in cardiac muscle contraction in people with myocardial infarction. They revealed the positive effect of aerobic exercise on heart regeneration and increased Ca2+ sensitivity on myocardial contractile [30].
It is suggested that by varying the dose of the chemical and biological silver nanoparticles, cardiac tissue structural parameters be measured after aerobic exercise. A limitation of the present study was disregarding the measurement of other structural parameters of cardiac tissue.
5. Conclusion
Biological and chemical nanosilver can damage the cardiac muscle tissue and cause necrosis and hyperemia in the heart tissue. Moreover, chemical silver nanoparticles appear to cause more damage to the heart tissue, compared to biological silver nanoparticles. Eventually, aerobic training can probably prevent these adverse effects to a large extent.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was performed according to the guidelines for laboratory animals of Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch (code: 94.F.514.77).
This study was extracted from a Ph.D. thesis written by  Forough Javaheri Houshi approved by the Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences at Islamic Azad University of Ayatollah Amoli Branch.
Authors' contributions
All authors contributed in preparing this article.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interests.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Diseases
Received: 2018/11/12 | Accepted: 2019/03/12 | Published: 2019/09/16

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