Volume 26, Issue 2 (Spring 2020)                   Intern Med Today 2020, 26(2): 118-127 | Back to browse issues page

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Ghodrati S, Rezaee D, Vaziri N, Shokrani B, Hazarati G. Health-related Quality of Life Characteristics in Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Intern Med Today 2020; 26 (2) :118-127
URL: http://imtj.gmu.ac.ir/article-1-3166-en.html
1- Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Literature, Humanities and Social Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Literature, Humanities and Social Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran. , vnewsha@yahoo.com
4- Department Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
5- Family Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

Quality of Life (QoL) is a term specifically used to convey a general sense of well-being [1]. Due to improvements in treating patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and increased life expectancy of this population, their QoL has become increasingly important [2].
Previous research has reported that daily life performance is associated with Health-Related QoL (HRQoL) in patients with HIV [3]. Neurological defects, especially memory impairment, is another predictor of HRQoL among the HIV-infected individuals. Previous research has reported that impairment in executive and memory functions predicts decreased QoL among young and middle-aged individuals with HIV [4, 5]. Another factor associated with HRQoL in patients with HIV is the Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) counts. Moreover, several studies have reported that CD4 counts are associated with QoL [6-9]. However, other studies detected no link between CD4 counts and QoL [10-13]. Viral load is another variable associated with QoL [14]. In this study, we intended to examine the cognitive, biological, functional, and demographic predictors of QoL in individuals with HIV.
2. Materials and Methods
This was a cross-sectional and analytical study. The statistical population of the present study was all individuals with HIV in Tehran City, Iran, in 2016-2017. The sampling of HIV-infected individuals was performed in the infection ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. Ninety people with HIV volunteered to participate in the study. We implemented a random sampling method. Data collection tools included an HRQoL assessment questionnaire; a prospective-retrospective memory scale; a daily living performance measurement interview, and a flow cytometry test to measure CD4 counts (Tabels 1, 2, 3 & 4).
3. Results
The obtained results suggested that prospective/retrospective memory and daily life performance were predictors of HRQoL in patients with HIV. Furthermore, there was a relationship between educational level and HRQoL; however, the level of education was not a predictor of HRQoL. The CD4 count and the rate of viral load, age, and gender were also not predictors of HRQoL in this population.
4. Discussion
Deauville et al. [15] argued that personal reporting of prospective memory is a unique and strong predictor of HRQoL in those with HIV infection. Additionally, Tozi et al. [4] concluded that neurological deficits are associated with poor QoL. The present research results are in line with these studies; a defect in the performance of prospective/retrospective memory is another strong predictor of HRQoL among the HIV-infected population.
In a cross-sectional study by Anderson et al. [3], decreased QoL was associated with more problems with daily living activities. In the present study, daily living performance was among the significant predictors of HRQoL. Previous studies [12-14, 16], consistent with the present research, have found no relationship between CD4 counts and QoL. Our research findings were inconsistent with some previous investigations [6-9]. Gamborg et al. [17] also detected no relationship between QoL and virus levels. The present study data were in line with those of Gamborg et al. [17]; however, they were inconsistent with the research of Chandra et al. [14], who found a significant relationship between viral load and QoL.
It is suggested that future research consider further longitudinal changes in these variables and their relationship to HRQoL. Future research is also recommended to use objective measurement tools for prospective/retrospective memory, as well as daily living performance. It is recommended that future research focus on other aspects of cognitive impairment in patients with HIV; although prospective/retrospective memory is among the most significant aspects of cognitive impairment in these patients, i.e. related to QoL.
5. Conclusion
A study limitation was its cross-sectional nature. Another limitation of this research was implementing self-assessment tools. Individuals with neurological impairments of prospective and retrospective memory, due to frequent forgetfulness in various indicators of HRQoL, encounter several defects. Besides, those with difficulties in daily living performance have reported more issues in different components of QoL. Identifying the factors associated with HRQoL in patients with HIV could significantly affect the design of therapeutic interventions; i.e. due to the long course of the disease and the survival of these patients.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
This research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Tehran (Code: IR.TUMS.REC.1394.1349).
The study was conducted with personal funding.
Authors' contributions
Conceptualization, Methodology, writing and review, supervision: Saeed Ghodrati, Data analysis: Donya Rezaee, Review: Newsha Vaziri, Data collection: Bahareh Shokrani, Ghazaleh Hazarati, Newsha Vaziri.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Mental Health
Received: 2018/12/12 | Accepted: 2020/01/4 | Published: 2020/06/21

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