Volume 26, Issue 1 (Winter 2019)                   Intern Med Today 2019, 26(1): 14-23 | Back to browse issues page

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Khanirad E, Haddad F, Soleymanifard S. Comparing the Radioprotective Effects of Brewed Rosa damascena and Vitamin E on Ionizing Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Using Micronucleus Assay in Binucleated Cells. Intern Med Today 2019; 26 (1) :14-23
URL: http://imtj.gmu.ac.ir/article-1-3215-en.html
1- Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran.
2- Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. , haddad@um.ac.ir
3- Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
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1. Introduction

umans are exposed to oxidizing agents, including Ionizing Radiation (IR) everyday for a variety of reasons. The destructive effect of IR on living cells and tissues has already been proven [1]. IR exerts its most destructive effect indirectly by affecting water molecules and producing free proximal and hydroxyl radicals. Biological systems, with their antioxidant defense systems, are somewhat protected against the potentially harmful effects of free radicals [2]. Several studies have shown that the use of IR increases the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes [3-6].

Due to the widespread use of IR in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, many efforts are being made today to find radiation protectors with minimal side effects [7]. Vitamin E and its derivatives have long been recognized as radiation-protective agents that can reduce the destructive effects of IR by collecting free radicals caused by oxidative stress [8, 9]. Due to the destructive effects of IR and its widespread use, it is necessary to find radioprotectors with low side effects. This study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of brewed Rosa damascena in comparison with Vitamin E.

2. Materials and Methods

This is an experimental study conducted on peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from 10 human samples (aged 20-25 years with a diet without antioxidants or low in antioxidants, and no history of smoking) in the genetic laboratory of the Department of Biology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Participants were selected from among the volunteers who filled out a questionnaire on lifestyle and general health. They were randomly divided into two groups of Vitamin E (n=5) and Rosa damascena (n=5). The first group was given one vitamin E 200 mg capsule (Dana Pharmaceutical Co.) for one week at 10:00 AM. The second group was given a glass of brewed Rosa damascena for one week at 10:00 AM.

To prepare each glass of brewed Rosa damascena, 1 gram of dried Rosa damascena (Gol Kuh Company) was placed in 250 ml of boiling water for 10 minutes. Blood sampling of volunteers was collected once before consumption of vitamin E/Rosa damascena and four times 1, 24, 96 h and one week after the last intake in heparin tubes and then cultured for 72 h. The cells were harvested using cytochalasin b and then, the frequency of micronuclei was calculated.

3. Results

X-radiation with a dose of 2Gy significantly increased the frequency of micronucleus in binucleated cells (9.33%) compared to controls (0.132%) (P<0.05), (Figure 1). Micronuclei frequency in binucleated cells of volunteers who used 200 mg vitamin E for one week was decreased significantly only 1 h after the last vitamin intake compared to the exposed group received no vitamin E (P<0.05). After 1 h, there was no decrease in the micronuclei frequency (Figure 1). The use of brewed Rosa damascena could significantly reduce the frequency of micronuclei induced by IR only 1 h after the last intake (P<0.05) compared to the exposed group received no brewed Rosa damascena. After 1 h, there was no decrease in the micronuclei frequency (Figure 1).

4. Discussion

In other studies, IR increased the frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes at a level similar to that of the present study [3-6]. In the study by Rostami et al. [8], Vitamin E was also able to reduce the frquency of macronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by X-rays only 1 h after use. The results of the present study show that brewed Rosa damascena can be used as a suitable radiation protector in people exposed to IR for various reasons shortly after consumption. Brewed Rosa damascena has long been used as a drink with a protective effect similar to vitamin E. Therefore, it can be used daily as an available brew by people who are particularly exposed to unwanted IR. To investigate the more effective protective effect of this plant, its phenolic compounds such catechin and flavonoids can be used in pure form. Impossibility to use more volunteers and also generalization of the study to plants of the same family due to the increase of the study groups were some of the limitations of our study.

Ethical Considerations

Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was approved by Iran National Committee for Ethics in Biomedical Research (Code: 21272).


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Authors' contributions

All authors contributed in preparing this article.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declared no conflict of interest.


The authors would like to thank Islamic Azad University of Mashhad Branch, Department of Biology at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, and the genetic laboratory staffs of the Department for the valuable cooperation and support.



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Type of Study: Original | Subject: Basic Medical Science
Received: 2019/01/25 | Accepted: 2019/09/10 | Published: 2020/01/1

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