Volume 26, Issue 2 (Spring 2020)                   Intern Med Today 2020, 26(2): 156-169 | Back to browse issues page

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Saremi A, Parastesh M, Mohammadi L. Resistin Changes Following Aerobic Exercise and its Relationship With Fertility in Male Rats With Type 2 Diabetes. Intern Med Today 2020; 26 (2) :156-169
URL: http://imtj.gmu.ac.ir/article-1-3339-en.html
1- Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
2- Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran. , m-parastesh@araku.ac.ir
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

Resistin is secreted from adipose tissue and could be a link between diabetes and infertility. Evidence suggests that resistin negatively impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; accordingly, affecting male and female fertility.
Nogueiras et al. found that resistin is a new endocrine that binds between energy homeostasis and reproduction; increasing the expression of the resistin gene by the testis reduces the function of leydig cells. Ultimately, it reduces testosterone production [1]. In addition, Normandin et al. observed in diabetic men that high levels of serum resistin were associated with hypogonadism in the testes and infertility [2]. Christos et al. documented that resistin negatively affected the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; consequently, affecting male and female fertility [3]. The current study aimed to investigate the changes in resistin following aerobic exercise in diabetic mice and its relationship with sperm parameters.
2. Materials and Methods
The present experimental study was performed in a laboratory. The study sample included 30 Wistar breed rats that were randomly obtained from Arak University in 2015.
Glucose concentration was measured by enzymatic-colorimetric method (Pars Azmoun Company, Iran). Insulin was evaluated by radioimmunoassay (Monobind Inc, USA). Measuring resistin serum levels with sensitivity of 0.16 pg/mL and the range of 0.60-60 pg/mL was performed by Rat ELISA Kit, Eastbiopharm (made in China; Under the USA license). These assessments were conducted according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Insulin resistance was then calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) as an insulin resistance index. The following Formula 1 was implemented for this purpose:
1. HOMA-IR = insulin (µu/ml) × glucose (mmol/L) 22.5
3. Results 
The induction of diabetes significantly reduced the number (P=0.001), mobility (P=0.001), survival (P=0.001), and morphology (P=0.01) of sperm. Sperm indicators, such as the number (P=0.03) and survival (P=0.002) were significantly higher in the exercise diabetes group, compared to the sedentary one. There was no significant difference in resistin levels between exercise and sedentary study groups (P=0.40) (Table 1).
4. Discussion 
Palmer et al. reported that 10 weeks of diet and exercise reduced adipose tissue and improved sperm number, motility, and morphology in obese mice [4]. In addition, Hakonsen et al. argued that obesity is associated with decreased semen quality and altered sex hormone profile. Moreover, participation in a 14-week weight-loss program improved semen quality and fertility [5]. Furthermore, Parastesh et al. documented that aerobic exercise increased testosterone and sperm production, as well as fertility in healthy individuals [6]. In line with the above-mentioned results, in the present study, after aerobic exercise, sperm factors, such as sperm count and viability improved in the investigated mice. Plessis et al. also reported that moderate-intensity exercise may increase male fertility. This could be achieved through mechanisms, such as improving glycemic status, endocrine status, oxidative stress, and body composition [7].
Based on the present study data, the improvement of sperm status in diabetic mice was not related to serum resistin changes. Accordingly, other mechanisms might be involved that require further exploration. Improvement in sperm parameters (sperm count, motility, viability, & morphology) appears to be associated with insulin resistance after 10 weeks of aerobic exercise by decreasing blood glucose level.
The study limitation included investigating diabetes specimen; diabetes caused by streptozotocin-nicotinamide is an imitation of the type 1 diabetes induction model. Thus, this model is not exactly a simulation of type 2 diabetes in humans. The pathophysiological and molecular aspects of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are common; however, some characteristics may be different and generally limit this pattern to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

5. Conclusion
The obtained data suggested that a 10-week aerobic exercise program improved sperm quality in rats with type 2 diabetes, i.e. independent of resistin changes.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
The code of ethics (IR.Arakmu.rec.1394.329) has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of Research Projects of Arak University of Medical Sciences.
This article is taken from the M.Sc. thesis of Lily Mohammadi at Arak University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Sports Physiology and without receiving financial assistance.
Authors' contributions
Main idea: Abbas Saremi and Mohammad Parastesh; Writing an article, and final approval of the article: Abbas Saremi, Mohammad Parastesh and Lily Mohammadi; Data collection, and data interpretation: Lily Mohammadi.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Physiology
Received: 2019/07/1 | Accepted: 2019/11/16 | Published: 2020/06/21

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